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Figure 1 illustrates the crosscutting and interdisciplinary nature of the science questions and their links to each science focus area. Using the transferred technical know-how, these manufacturers were able to fabricate some spacecraft components for FS1, FS2 and FS3 projects, respectively. Leijtens et al. All contributions oral and poster contributions of the 6th symposium were published in their short 4-page version in the symposium digest Small Satellites for Earth Observation, Digest of the 6th International Symposium of the International Academy of Astronautics, Berlin, April 23—26,ISBNv vi Preface pages. EO programs are often technologically читать больше and costly to initiate and are therefore difficult to develop with the limited budget of a small country or region. Alternatively, cooperation between regions or small countries can windows 10 1703 download iso itar – windows 10 1703 download iso itar regions to overcome resource constraints and lack of expertise to harness the potential of these powerful technologies.


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TLS version 1. Explain how the service provider manages customer information that falls under regulatory compliance i. Vertical Solutions. Security and Compliance. Generally, the study [1, 2] provides a definition of cost-effective Earth observation missions, information about background material and organizational support, shows the cost drivers and how to achieve cost-effective missions, and provides a chapter dedicated to training and education. The focus is on the status quo and prospects of applications in the field of Earth observation.

The conclusions and recommendations of the study are the focus of this paper. They are summarized here in terms of r r r r more general facts that drive the small satellite mission activities, recommendations of the study trends in Earth observation missions, and some visions concerning the future of cost-effective Earth observation missions.

We find that, while there are several examples of such missions flying today, the lessons that must be learned in order to produce cost-effective small sat missions have neither been universally accepted nor understood by all in the space community. In the study we intended to point out how a potential user can produce a cost effective mission. One of the key enablers of designing a cost-effective mission is having the key expertise available. As the number of successfully space-faring nations grows, the pool of expertise available to meet the challenges of small mission grows.

Trends and Visions for Small Satellite Missions 29 Since the advent of modern technologies, small satellites have also been perceived to offer an opportunity for countries with a modest research budget and little or no experience in space technology, to enter the field of space-borne Earth observation and its applications.

One of the possible approaches is to take full advantage of the ongoing technology developments leading to further miniaturization of engineering components, development of micro-technologies for sensors and instruments which allow to design dedicated, well-focused Earth observation missions. At the extreme end of the miniaturization, the integration of micro-electromechanical systems MEMS with microelectronics for data processing, signal conditioning, power conditioning, and communications leads to the concept of application specific integrated microinstruments ASIM.

These micro- and nano-technologies have led to the concepts of nano- and pico-satellites, constructed by stacking wafer-scale ASIMs together with solar cells and antennas on the exterior surface, enabling the concept of space sensor webs. More generally small satellite missions are supported by four contemporary trends: r r r r advances in electronic miniaturization and associated performance capability; the recent appearance on the market of new small launchers e.

The large satellite missions are sometimes even a precondition for cost-effective small satellite solutions. This may be, for instance, observed from the topics and the quality of contributions to the series of, to date, five biannual IAA Symposia on Small Satellites for Earth Observation in Berlin, Germany. The 5th Symposium took place in April, There is no single, accepted, broad method for reducing mission cost. Each low-cost program has found and have to find a set of solutions to fill its particular need and programmatic style.

The full paper gives a summary of cost reduction methods which are selectively used by the builders of low-cost missions. To reduce cost, alternatives to dedicated launches of satellites should also be taken into consideration. Although each of the alternatives given and explained in the full paper has limitations, dramatic reductions in cost are possible for missions such as equipment testing that do not necessarily need a long period on orbit.

Cost-effectiveness also depends on the quality and engagement of the specialists participating in planning and implementing an Earth observation mission. Countries taking their first steps in space need to learn relevant techniques from more experienced space users, thereby acquiring a cadre of appropriately trained Trends and Visions for Small Satellite Missions 31 personnel before going on to establish a national agency and to maintain a presence in space.

Technology transfer through small satellite related training programs has been successfully implemented between Surrey University in the U. Small satellites programs provide a natural means for the education and training of scientists and engineers in space related skills since they allow direct, hands-on, experience at all stages technical and managerial of a particular mission including design, production, test, launch and orbital operations. The general prospects for disaster warning and support may serve as an example for the trends in Earth observation missions.

They can be grouped into the following main topics: space, ground, and program segment. In summary, one can say that small satellites can provide data more quickly with a better match to user needs.

Option Trends and Visions for Small Satellite Missions 35 The education in using spaceborne data has to be improved but also the information extraction process for decision makers has to be tailored and optimized to their needs. In addition, the entire spectrum of assets, from ground to space, must be integrated into an environment that provides the information needed to make decisions. The study brings to light new capabilities as well as challenges that must be addressed in order to produce successful, cost-effective small satellite missions.

These are: 1. A mission can be cost-effective and achieve all its measurement requirements without having to actually make all the measurements itself. These satellites make individual measurements that support cross platform science. Many of the instruments that image the surface also use ancillary information, such as digital elevation maps, to add context to their products. One could readily envision a small satellite mission that was intended to provide some niche product, such as crop yield forecasting, in a particular region.

Such a small satellite could produce a very specific measurement, say normalized difference vegetative index NDVI , which would be corrected for aerosols and clouds using data from the A Train. Membership is acquired by contracting for the production of an element of the constellation. Each member of the cooperative then gets the benefit of a much shorter revisit time. In short, the economies of scale begin to operate as more members join the cooperative.

Getting into space is still a challenge. During the last ten years there have been more small launchers available and at prices that are quite reasonable compared to the cost of a small satellite. Perhaps the early history of the development of commercial aviation presages the next twenty years of space access. At the turn of the century, air travel was relatively risky and quite expensive. As the commercial market for air transport grew, costs dropped as did risk. Now, air transport is so cost-effective that it is used to ship bulky agricultural goods, such as apples, half-way around the world at prices that are competitive with local transport and production.

At those kinds of costs for mass to orbit, small satellite missions will no longer be strongly constrained by launch costs. If we step back from the purely speculative, commercial launch services are now available on most launch systems, many of which are new vehicles designed or modified specifically for international commercial market. The most dramatic shift has been the entry of the Russian and Ukrainian launch systems operated as joint ventures with US or European companies.

New launch systems around the world are even beginning to use major components built in other countries, further blurring national divisions.

The increasing availability of these lowcost launchers and the development of dispensers has opened up possibilities for single launches of a constellation as well as individual payloads. This vehicle has a heritage of flights. At the other end of the cost and mass spectrum, Ariane 5 has been used to launch 6 auxiliary payloads along with the primary Helios satellite.

In another example, the Cluster mission formed a constellation of four satellites, flying in formation, using two separate launches. Once the spacecraft are in orbit, the remaining costs are largely associated with operating the spacecraft including monitoring its health and safety and collecting the data. As the number of spacecraft increases in a constellation there would be, without a change in the operations paradigm, a concomitant increase in the costs to operate the constellation.

In order to have a cost effective constellation of microor nano-satellites, the operations costs have to be low on a per satellite basis, especially since some of these constellations are envisioned as consisting of tens or even hundreds of micro- or nano-satellites.

Powerful, cheap, microprocessors provide the means for increased autonomy at the individual satellite level and across the constellation.

At issue, though, is developing the software to perform these operations and subsequently testing the software so that its operation can be verified before flight. Qualifying these systems for spaceflight will be a challenge that must be addressed. Small satellites have appealed to some nations as an instrument of national pride and as a means to focus and enhance the industrial base as well as providing a means of attracting students to a high tech industry.

This is, of course, a finite market. After the first few satellites there has to be reason other than 38 R. To develop a robust market, small satellite manufacturers must remain relevant and cost-effective. It appears that in many markets space technology has entered the era of diminishing returns — for example, if you can achieve imagery from space with a spatial resolution of about one meter, do you really gain anything marketable by imaging at one centimeter?

This plateau effect means that more vendors can aspire to provide the same product. How many suppliers can the market support?

It may be that the market can support more suppliers of imagery if revisit time is a key driver. The user then must draw products from several sources and understand enough about each independent data source so that the desired product can be produced. Raw data products, though, are not likely to capture many more users: tailored products that address specific needs can be supplied by small satellites.

The vertical integration of the industry, to provide instruments, data and integrated data products, is likely to spur significant growth. Until that robust commercial market has been developed, government support will continue to be the financial mainstay of the small satellite community.

This situation will remain in force until some economies of scale can be achieved. They did this by identifying and cultivating a niche market that they are able to address. Much of the small satellite community is still tied to education and research activities — activities that rely on government support. Inter-government cooperative agreements provide the means of broadening the opportunities available to the community.

Bureaucracies are averse to risk, however, and small organizations and cooperative agreements are often viewed as risky. Managing risk is a key problem, then. Since no complex system can be designed and tested against all failure modes, experience is often the best and only guide to making trades.

Large organizations tend to have more restrictions on what can fly and may have stringent risk assessment processes.

Higher TRLs mean the element has significant flight experience. The highest TRL is assigned to elements with direct flight heritage. Small satellites can be quite effective as platforms to raise the TRL of an element to be used in a latter design.

The challenge faced by the small satellite community is to gain a broader acceptance of the notion that TRLs can be raised as an integral part of a mission rather than by implementing a dedicated mission such as the JPL-led Deep Space missions.

Making small satellites more cost-effective calls for new technologies but who then pays to certify these new technologies for spaceflight?

There is certainly a higher risk associated with unproven technology. For example, the ready availability of large format detectors at relatively low cost shifts the design choices from being driven by the detector resolution to being driven by other factors such as the interplay between spacecraft stability and off-nadir pointing capability or downlink bandwidth and onboard storage, etc. Can a system be designed that can use these new detectors? How do they behave in space?

A small mission is arguably the best way to perform a flight verification because even a failure to operate on orbit, or even to achieve orbit, can still be a successful demonstration from an educational or Trends and Visions for Small Satellite Missions 39 developmental viewpoint. Cost-sharing between a larger, richer, risk-averse partner and a smaller, poorer, more risk-tolerant partner may prove beneficial to both parties.

What makes a mission cost effective? The simplest answer is that the desired end is achieved for a price that is acceptable to all parties. While some mission objectives may only be achieved by the large, complex instruments and spacecraft, there are many uses for small missions. For many potential customers the best price point is established by sharing risk. If the risk is borne broadly, even a failure to achieve launch can still yield a cost-effective mission because the partners view the educational and infrastructure return as sufficiently high and the other shared aspects of the partnership yield some of the required information.

To remain cost-effective in the commercial arena, small missions must be able to incorporate new technologies that reduce costs and improve performance. Small satellite missions face growing competition in regional markets from GPS-based solutions, UAVs, balloons, and sensor webs, for example.

The chief advantage of satellites is their global access. Exploiting that, and successfully marketing that advantage, will hold the long-term key to keeping small satellites cost-effective. Assessing whether a mission is successful or not involves many different measures. Assuring that a small-satellite mission is considered successful means that these differing measures must be addressed and considered in the design of the mission.

Some of these measures of success are, in fact, much more likely to be fulfilled by a small-satellite mission than a large one. For example, students are much more likely to be involved in a small satellite mission. Small satellites can demonstrate new technologies or measurement techniques. In terms of impact at the national level, a small satellite that is produced by a country may well evoke more pride of ownership than an instrument or participation in a large-scale investigation.

In this study we have laid out the reasons how to design and implement a small cost-effective Earth-observation mission. In the end, success is subjective: the true measure is whether the program continues and flourishes. Sandau, Rainer ed. At this moment we are running the Phase-B started in Nov. It will be followed by Nanosat-2, an evolved 15—40 Kg satellite with improved service module resources and a separated payload module design, set for launch by Angulo et al.

Most of the subsystems are developed at INTA, but we also relay on bilateral work with several Spanish universities and other research institutions. At the same time, we try to offer parts of HW or SW to the small business Spanish industries, to promote and encourage their entering into the space technology. The launch of the first Nanosat mission was made on 18 Dec. Even after almost 5 years working perfectly in orbit that gave remarkable science returns, this was the second deceleration after Intasat 1st generation 15 years stop from to Just as a logical further step to the original Nanosat initiative, in Oct.

In our view and considering the evolved space industry reality in Spain today, we can state that the same approach is also applicable to a microsatellite programme.

However, the MicroSat missions can be adapted to a bigger mass 3 Programme Support Team: Universities, National Research Institutes, and Small Business Spanish Industries To fully develop a small satellite project internally is not an easy task at INTA, even having the resources of people and very capable test facilities, because it is very difficult to cover all the necessary disciplines.

Besides that, other 44 M. TTI Norte: is another little company in Santander, which was responsible of the specific communications protocol develop-ment for Nanosat The baseline design is with fixed solar panels, but a design rotating along Xs axis is available if specifically required.

Propulsion will be an add-on module when needed. Next Fig. Each mission is particular in its design or configuration, and the blocks will change in accordance with the needs.

This approach gives much more flexibility for accommodation, and optimises the volume occupation. Figure 6 shows as an example the Nanosat PDU four level boards and mother board total mass is 1,4 Kg. When required by a specific box, a common back plane design is also available to interconnect the different boards inside that particular unit. For limited redesigns we go directly to PFM after delta qualifications.

Nevertheless, we usually apply important simplifications: 48 M. The EM units are submitted to a temperature cycle at ambient pressure, to check the behaviour of the design at the limits. After the required functional test, the Flight units passed just the environmental acceptance tests at satellite level.

Is it a luxury to have a full functional QM satellite? To some extent yes. In our case it is justified due to the need of building up some further sister satellites i. On top of that, it is of great benefit to have two operational satellites during the development and during the in orbit acceptance campaign. The SVM has a primary structure with an H shape where all its units are attached. Just the antennas and the HPA final stage of the X-Band transmitter for thermal reasons , are supported by the 4 external panels made in a light Aluminium honeycomb.

Given the size of the inner panels and the load factor that also supports the Payload mass they are made from a solid aluminium alleviated plate. Thermal control is based on the classical passive design, using when required multilayer thermal isolations in the external sides, and radiators where required.

Inside the satellite all units are finished in black and in good thermal contact with the structure when adequate for heat rejection. Only the Lithium-ion battery carries heaters to keep it between adequate limits, but most of the time they are off. Thermal control in principle shall be independent from the SVM, but certain coupling is unavoidable. This is critical, as the design is just single string.

Only the TTC transceiver is redundant 50 M. The new design was initiated in Nov. This decision is also challenging due to this recent and still in development high speed technology for space, sponsored by ESA.

Although only the transmitter is sufficient for MicroSat, we will make also a receiver in order to qualify it in orbit for other applications. Additionally, it could provide a backup TTC channel for the uplink that will increase the mission reliability. Part of the development effort spent on the new digital Modem, will be reused in this band with speed requirements going up to 20—40 Mbps. Nanosat-1B is an Earth pointing satellite due to the medium gain UHF helix antenna, required to improve the store and forward communications with mobile terminals on ground.

Either air coils or magnetorods together with 4 reaction wheels are the baseline actuators. It only takes one second to give such angular speed to the satellite. Nevertheless, it is envisaged that the reaction wheels will be needed for the fine pointing after any rotation manoeuvre, and to desaturate the AGA when required.

Number of modes and transition rules are now been studied. The number of strings connected to this bus in real time will be in accordance with the required power in the satellite. The previous experience developing and operating other small satellites will be of great benefit.

Nanosat-1B is a sister satellite, that will be launched in to complement the store and forward communication mission of the first mission. Since Nov. This again will follow the same principles and development rules of Nanosat, together with the acquired know-how and lessons learned up to now. The target for the MicroSat development planning since the programme presentation in Oct. The wheels and coil torquers will be the nominal actuators. We will like also to thank INTA top level management, for their big support and encouraging recommendations along the past years.

Reference 1. Angulo, MR. Canchal, JM. Mi, P. Baker, Philip Davies, and Lee Boland Abstract This paper outlines the heritage and future plans of SSTL in enabling high performance cost effective Earth observation services through constellations of small spacecraft. The paper will discuss two new spacecraft for customers in Spain and Nigeria, and how these meet traditional needs for Earth Observation data at a low cost.

The range of payload options which SSTL can offer for a wide variety of Earth imaging applications covering high and medium resolution, wide area coverage, frequent revisits and near real-time tasking and data return in various wavebands, including visible light and microwave will be discussed.

Baker et al. The Beijing-1 microsatellite was added to the constellation after launch in October Satellites can cover hundreds to hundreds of thousands of square kilometres, depending on the resolution, against hundreds of square kilometres for aerial platforms. In contrast, a typical small spacecraft such as NigeriaSat-2 can be built for an order of magnitude less, will offer a GSD as low as 2 m, and can offer daily repeat with as few as 2 spacecraft, both of which can be positioned using a single low cost launcher.

The plots above demonstrate the increasing capability of cameras and sensor arrays available for small satellite platforms, enabling attractive combinations of wide field of regard, rapid repeat and high resolution to be affordable. RapidEye aims to deliver Earth agricultural and insurance industry specific information products derived from multispectral wide area Earth Observation data. RapidEye will serve 3 markets: 1. Agricultural Insurance: supporting the loss adjustment process by provision of regularly updated field maps.

Agricultural Producers: assisting precision farming by regularly providing information about crop conditions and yield predictions. International Institutions: assessing expected crop harvests and monitor usage of subsidies for disaster relief. Spain DMC is funded through anticipated data sales to a small set of countries, and will reach new levels of image throughput performance for the next generation DMC constellation.

To this end, subsystem design changes include i. Replacement of NiCd battery with higher capacity, greater Depth of Discharge, higher energy density and longer life Li-Ion battery. Improving the imager resolution has been increased from 32 m to 22 m at nadir without reducing swath, by utilising a custom lens and the latest CCD linear array, while maintaining overall mass, envelope and power consumption.

Digitisation fidelity has also been improved from 8 to 10 bit. The operations strategy targets maximum imaging time in the sunlit part of the orbit. Operating modes with imaging and downlinking data during each orbit, and imaging orbits followed by downlinking orbits have been developed.

A key customer requirement is to deliver complete coverage of Spain and Portugal within 5 days using a combination of operating modes. This requires a significant increase in the number of scenes per day delivered to the customer, compared to the original Moving Towards Commercial Earth Observation Services 61 DMC spacecraft.

A balance is struck between covering the maximum area per orbit, which requires a subsequent orbit or orbits to downlink all the data, and reducing the area covered but allowing all operations to be conducted within an orbit. A future goal for SSTL missions is to allow stripmap imaging, where the imager can be run continuously in parallel to downlinking for the sunlit part of the orbit. This would deliver up to 12M km2 of imagery per orbit, assuming the ground segment could handle this data throughput!

NigeriaSat-2, weighing about kg at launch, will feature a high-capacity solid-state onboard recorder with a gigabyte memory and an X-band downlink capacity exceeding megabits per second. In excess of accurately geolocated images with a 2. NigeriaSat-2, shown above will be built in 30 months and is scheduled for launch in mid along with a co-passenger NigeriaSat-X which will be an advanced training model for the Nigerian engineers who began their training with the NigeriaSat-1 DMC spacecraft launched in Moving Towards Commercial Earth Observation Services 63 4 Payloads for Small Satellites SSTL has carefully studied the Earth Observation market, and has made efforts to ensure that its platforms are applicable to a range of payloads operating in various wavebands outside the visible spectrum, and carrying out activities in addition to electro-optical imaging.

Missions studies have ranged from altimetry, geolocating electronic intelligence signals, spectrometry of a wide range of atmospheric species and greenhouse gases, and both active and passive microwave imaging. Mindful of the breadth of the market for Earth Observation and small satellites, SSTL spacecraft continue to be designed in an adaptable modular fashion which can support multiple payload options.

Two popular options are detailed below: SSTL developed the wide area medium resolution SLIM-6 camera, shown below, and in acquired the optical instrument capability of the UK firms Sira electrooptics, which developed the Beijing-1 microsatellite high resolution imager, also shown below: Fig.

Primary on Medium Res. Sub-1 m GSD performance using a microsatellite platform is being examined by SSTL in collaboration with a leading UK payload provider, allowing additional production capacity to meet the requirements of future constellations. Monitoring the rate of calving of the Greenland ice sheet, which would raise global sea level temperatures by 7 m, were it to melt entirely. CHRIS is currently the highest resolution capability spectrometer in orbit, and with a mass of only 14 kg and a power draw of 8 W is a highly attractive payload for a small spacecraft.

Example applications include mapping aerosol concentrations, water and land surface use, and chlorophyll concentrations. Leaf angle is indicator of crop ripeness 6 Supporting Mission Elements SSTL also offers a number of supporting capabilities to give a spacecraft mission appropriate utility: r r r r Ground stations, fixed or mobile.

Launch contracts, operations and operational support contracts, as well as image data processing, sales and marketing. Sale of a complete range of ITAR free spacecraft subsystems. Know-How transfer and Training, in the form of i Improving customer ability to specify and procure low cost space systems, ii Training technical organisations in the SSTL approach to space systems development and iii Training spacecraft operators. These are now a mature technology and have demonstrated their potential as a product with complementary performances to more conventional mission solutions.

With continued advances in technology, new areas in Earth observation are being explored and applications like high resolution-, hyper spectral- and small SAR radar missions become feasible with a PROBA scale platform and its derivatives. As small satellite missions become more ambitious, so the space industry is adapting to the challenge of creating organisations which can deliver the advantages of small satellite technology while retaining compatibility with international data standards and operating practices.

This paper will outline high-performance solutions for future Earth observation missions, highlighting the role that cutting-edge technologies have to delivering unique capability to meet customer needs. Bermyn, C. Dorn 1 Small Missions Heritage 1. HRC instrument — 4 m pan images and has agility to execute demanding mapping and push-broom scanning scenarios e. CHRIS instrument — 18 m multispectral images. Although designed for a lifetime of only 2 years, PROBA 1 is now functioning in-orbit for more than 5 years and providing earth observation images through ESA to the science community on a daily basis.

In the meantime, its successor PROBA 2 carrying sun observation instruments is under final integration at Verhaert Space and is planned for launch early Dorn 1. It has since been producing high quality imagery to satisfy a range of user requests.

The purpose of the programme is primarily to demonstrate the ability to build and operate a low cost optical satellite capable of generating high quality imagery. A flexible response to the customers needs is the hallmark of the QinetiQ-Verhaert approach. Simplified programmatic structures, integrated teams, on-board automation and new technologies all have their part to play in reducing costs. The mission must be 72 J.

Dorn viewed as a complete system and the component segments design to minimise through life costs by matching risk with customer expectation and technical solutions. To date, the application field stays limited to imagery with up to a few meters of ground resolution and a few spectral bands in the visible and near-infrared spectrum. Clearly, this is driven by the resources and performances available on small platforms but thanks to the evolving technologies on payloads and platform side a lot of other applications come within our reach.

Small missions will never be suited, and are not intended, to replace the full capability of large systems, but they will be a very interesting complement to it. Over the years, several concepts and ideas wore worked out to show the potential of our PROBA platform for emerging applications.

Indeed, we can talk about the Proba Spacecraft Family of which some key potential is highlighted hereafter. Several studies were carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of following missions based on a PROBA platform: 2.

These offer the possibility of even smaller and more electrically efficient sub-systems. Multi — and hyper spectral instruments work typical at lower resolutions but generate huge amounts of data. Here solutions can be worked out in several areas, starting with data capturing optimisation to reduce the capture of un-usable data , data compression and storage and high power downlink capacity. Studies are ongoing to fly optimised systems with shorter lifetime less redundancy on a small platform, and investigation continues in to low altitude missions.

Before entering in a very ambitious science mission, critical technologies can be developed and demonstrated in orbit in a fast and cost-effective way. In addition to the existing LEO applications of small spacecraft, new missions are being developed to utilise small satellites in other Earth orbits. These can be coupled with a range of propulsion systems for new mission solutions. Dorn 2. As small missions prime, we enter the so-called Mid-Tier segment, where challenging missions based on small satellite platforms will be developed.

Small missions require smart and innovative solutions but at the same time they have to stay affordable and require realisation within reasonable timescales. The QinetiQ-Verhaert teaming allows such mission to be undertaken in an appropriate and efficient way, with the right priority small mission are a key account for us.

Furthermore, we combine the flexibility and cost efficient approach of smaller organisations with the quality standards, facilities and credibility of larger organisations. During the summer , 33 students from the International Space University ISU worked on a project aiming at making EO accessible to small countries and regions.

Although EO programs are costly to initiate, they are often feasible and beneficial for small countries and regions. However an information gap exists between EO providers and decision makers. As small satellites are amongst the cheapest systems to develop and launch, this will often be the preferred option of small countries and regions, and the selection tool is thus likely to bring benefits to the small satellite industry.

The region of Catalonia, one of the three test cases studied in the project, is used as example to illustrate this statement. Examples of such decision makers include resource managers, urban and regional planners; agricultural producers and disaster first responders.

Examples of EO applications include facilitating public services and natural resource management. Earth Observation data can be especially useful for small countries and regions in assisting their future development. However a gap often exists between the capabilities of EO systems to serve applications and the knowledge base of decision makers about EO capabilities, especially at the level of small countries and regions.

EO programs are often technologically complex and costly to initiate and are therefore difficult to develop with the limited budget of a small country or region. However, in some cases, small countries and regions that A. Schoenmaker carefully investigate and develop EO programs can establish their own EO programs despite the cost and complexity issues. Alternatively, cooperation between regions or small countries can allow regions to overcome resource constraints and lack of expertise to harness the potential of these powerful technologies.

Small countries and regions establishing EO capacity, whether they are cooperating or not, must determine the most cost-effective way of implementing this capacity. Several options exist for these actors to take full advantage of EO technology to answer their needs. Amongst them, buying existing data, obtaining data free of charge or commercially, or developing their own system, are the most realistic ones.

Developing a space-based system for a small country or region with a limited budget almost automatically implies small satellites.

The prototype was developed using three test cases that have shown an interest in developing an EO program: Catalonia, Spain; Alsace, France; and the Island of Mauritius. Earth observations are a technologically complex and costly set of tools that can be instituted effectively for small countries and regions, if developed appropriately. Five major, non-exclusive options for developing EO capacity were identified: 1. Obtain EO data from existing aerial and satellite EO data providers; Establish aerial EO programs; Develop locally owned and operated satellite EO systems small satellites ; Create a data processing centre that converts data to information for decision makers; or 5.

Any or all of the above in cooperation with another small country or region. EO developers must assess the applications, needs, technical capabilities, and policy and legal implications of using the technology.

Developing an Earth Observation project is a truly interdisciplinary work, and this is how this project was put together. The following figures show how the same EO process can be seen from different perspectives: technical and financial. Indeed, the technical process is a very important aspect of an EO system, but a country or region envisaging building its own EO system should not overlook Small Satellites and Earth Observation Systems for Small Countries and Regions 79 Fig.

An understanding of the financial considerations for EO programs is one of the most essential points. A proposed value chain for EO systems, from the EO provider and to the end users who exploit the information is shown in Fig. The principal concepts applied to the value chain are the EO ventures analyzed, cost estimating methods and financing options. When a small country or region develops EO programs, the national and international policies and legal framework for space should also be considered, in concert with the technological development path and program financing.

Given this technological, financial and legal context for EO program development, small countries and regions are often best served by employing a cooperative model, e. Using a cooperative model, small countries and regions can overcome obstacles and develop EO programs that meet the specific needs of the region.

The SOL project encompasses all these different aspects of EO to find out the best options for small countries or regions, whose decision makers are the targets of this study. Apart from providing an interdisciplinary background in Earth Observations the project also includes three test cases and the idea of a tool, which will be discussed next. The local economy of Catalonia is highly 80 A.

Schoenmaker dependent on tourism and industry. Agriculture, including viticulture and cereals, is also an important factor for the economy.

Currently, private industry and academic research centers comprise the extent of EO capabilities in Catalonia; however, interest in expanding EO capability locally has grown recently. This project has identified an opportunity for Catalonia to consider developing a regional EO system to stimulate local industry and to improve the use of EO for current and future applications.

EO can be useful in Catalonia for viticulture, mapping, environmental monitoring, disaster management, and humanitarian aid. Catalonia is currently using EO data for some applications, but the region could further capitalize on EO technology and build capacity in EO system development. Given the current capacity and the potential budget for EO systems, a small dedicated satellite is one viable option for Catalonia.

Such a system could satisfy some of the technical EO needs e. Different sectors where EO could be useful for Catalonia have been analyzed, starting with vineyards. The analysis of the density and vigor of the vine canopy is an essential tool to assess the yield and quality of the wine. To achieve such target, a minimum spatial resolution of at least 1.

This requirement is driven by the conventional vineyard row spacing. Unfortunately this resolution does not provide sufficient resolution for the development of precise viticulture. Therefore, another proposed option which should supplement the space-based solutions is based on airborne systems in combination with on-site ground observations. This sensor is an optical multispectral sensor, offering a typical spatial resolution below 1 m, depending on the flight altitude. Concerning environmental applications, there is a wide range of EO applications that could be tackled by means of different solutions space-, airborne- or groundbased , and within the set budget constraints.

Considering the general approach of this particular example, the possible solutions are very broad. One of the alternatives would be to buy data from the huge number of currently orbiting satellites and sensing systems scattered around the world. Another possibility would be to make use of airborne systems in combination with on-site ground observations. A feasible space-based solution could be based on the use of a micro-satellite, with medium-to-high resolution sensors.

An example of implementation would be the use of a suitable platform to be integrated in the DMC-2 constellation, with a CHRIS sensor achieving spatial resolutions of about 17 m. With this proposed system operating in LEO orbits, a vast range of applications could be developed, as is the case of mapping and monitoring to assess the change of the territory over time, precision agriculture, urban planning in coastal areas to avoid denaturalization Small Satellites and Earth Observation Systems for Small Countries and Regions 81 of the seashore, forestry, water shed control, wetlands monitoring in the Ebro river delta, coastal erosion control, snow measurement in the Pyrenees, etc.

This new development is very encouraging for the small satellite industry in Spain, and is related to the third important application in Catalonia: Disaster management. In this case, the SOL report advised that the revisit time of the EO systems should be relatively short. Revisiting times below one or two days would be desired for a proper management of river flooding, as well as for the identification of the current state of infrastructures under the effects of any natural disaster of short life time.

That is why any new satellite should be integrated into an already flying constellation, such as DMC. The same kind of micro-satellite could be used by Catalonia for mapping purposes. After this analysis it is thus striking to see all the possible applications of the capabilities of a micro-satellite in this region, whilst staying in a limited budget.

These proposed systems would however be best developed in cooperation with other regions or countries in order to facilitate technology transfer, to encourage political ties between regions, to improve EO system capabilities e. This is an aspect that is now being addressed by Deimos Imaging by entering into the DMC constellation.

Schoenmaker EO capacity building in Catalonia could result in valuable economic and social spin-offs for the region. High-tech EO systems can be beneficial for the local economy by stimulating economic growth, industry, commercial development, and fostering new ventures in EO. This would occur if Catalonia began developing its own satellites or if the region established other EO competencies.

A data processing center, for example, could serve regional data processing needs, stimulate revenues for the region, and provide a mechanism for Catalonia to assist other regions in harnessing the potential benefits from EO.

A center of this type could be based on a public-private partnership PPP model. EO capacity building in Catalonia could also encourage scientific and technology competitiveness and promote scientific education.

GEOSS is a project that attempts to centralize the existing EO databases in order to facilitate gap analysis in available data and enhance dissemination and sharing of existing EO data. However the scope of GEOSS is limited to sharing observational data and connecting information from separate sources. The usefulness of the GEOSS centralized database will be limited to experienced users that have already identified the datasets that they need.

Accessing GEOSS requires technical expertise in EO technology; potential users need a simple tool to help them target needed data and assess the cost. As a result, the need to map and centralize existing technologies, research centers, and added-value actors remains despite the more recent efforts.

A tool such as SOLST could assist users to target the appropriate options of datasets for a particular application or interest. This issue is pressing for small regions and countries with limited resources. The restricted financial capacity places emphasis on a tool that can facilitate a search for existing and future EO tools, giving preferential consideration to cooperation models with other participants in EO.

The system architecture of the proposed tool is composed of databases, an electronic interface, and linkages between the databases and interface. The databases consist of specific information about EO applications, data types and availability, and estimated system and data costs. These databases link together in such a way that multiple outputs can be selected, depending on the level of detail sought by the tool user.

The tool selects EO options with a set of criteria like budget, technical requirements, applications, and cooperation opportunities. The criteria are not ranked by order of importance. Small Satellites and Earth Observation Systems for Small Countries and Regions 83 The intentions of the user are divided into three main options: building a system; searching for datasets; searching for added-value services e.

A combination of these three options could be selected. A cooperation entry can lead to both an output tutorial on cooperative models and an access to posted inquiries. The four entries can be independently left blank if unknown by the user.

If all are left blank, the user will be directed to a high level introduction to EO applications and its potential. A search and selection tool can help accomplish this. The beneficiaries of SOLST could include decision makers at different levels, technical EO users, and small countries and regions that are open to collaboration. The primary objectives of SOLST are: r r r r r r To increase the awareness of the potential of EO through a high level introduction and application-based description; To bridge the gap between the potential users of EO systems; To provide an initial set of available EO options based on user selection criteria, and to give a preliminary overview of options prior to making a local or global decision; To guide small countries or regions through the decision-making process by facilitating the identification and definition of an EO system that meets their needs; To enhance collaboration options particularly for small countries or regions through the use of a Forum and a posted inquiries compartment; and To provide technical EO users an accessible database of EO systems.

SOLST incorporates three primary functions. Apart from the search selection tool, an information request option and a forum section should also be included, to answer the needs of the users that are not met in the tool itself. For example it will allow them to ask for a summary describing the legal aspects of remote sensing, or to interact with other users of the tool to enhance communication and help cooperation.

Schoenmaker Several implementation and maintenance options for the tool have been proposed and a prototype database has been constructed. However, this needs further and long-term development and testing to evolve in an operational tool. First, it would increase the awareness of decision makers about the capabilities of small satellite technology and therefore increase the demand.

For a region like Catalonia, which already has an interest in Earth Observation technology, the tool mainly confirms the option that a small satellite would best suit their needs. It adds however that cooperation would be the best way to go about it, and gives an approximation of the total cost that would have to be invested in such a system. This rapidly accessible information might quicken the process for local decision-makers.

The EO documents available in the tool also give them information about already existing small satellite programs. In this case the tool gives an easy access to information about the sought after technology. In other cases, the tool and the available EO introductory documents might be the first exposure a user has to EO and small satellite technology. The tool would then fulfill its mission of increasing awareness amongst worldwide decision makers about EO, and in this case small satellites.

Increasing awareness and giving easy access to information will surely help increase the demand for small satellites but also improve the technology, as a variety of payloads might be carried on small satellites. As mentioned earlier, cooperation is often the most reliable and realistic way for small countries and regions to gain access to EO data, and this seems to be favorable to small satellites as well. Surrey Satellite Technology Limited SSTL is a good example of a cooperative venture that led to the development, building and launching of several identical small satellites.

Second the tool will help in addressing the limitations of small satellites by emphasizing possible trade-offs. For small countries or regions, budget, technical capability and human resources are critical factors. As mentioned before, a small satellite will not usually be feasible for them; cooperation with other entities will allow them to spread the costs and the risks and to take advantage of a range of sensors or resolutions even if they develop only one themselves.

Third, some specific programs involving small satellite technology such as KnowHow Transfer programs and Rent-a-Sat options seem to prove to be very well adapted to the needs of small countries and regions, as they are solutions both to lack of capacity and lack of funds, two of the main issues for small countries and regions.

The utility of EO for such countries and regions, however, rests on the ability of an organizing body for the EO program to identify and select the most suitable option s for EO in the region. This selection must fall within the technical and budgetary constraints, which are case specific. Combining cooperation and small satellites is here often a winning solution.

To assist in identifying and selecting the best option for the small countries and regions, this project has identified one method and illustrated that method using the SOLST prototype. In the long term, it is proposed that this method and prototype be developed in conjunction with other initiatives that are attempting to facilitate this type of EO program decision.

Its optical aperture diameter is mm, the effective focal length is mm, and its full field-of-view is 5. To demonstrate its performance and versatility, hyper-spectral imaging using a linear spectral filter was chosen as the application of the prototype. The spectral resolution will be less than 10 nm and the number of channels will be more than 40 in visible and near-infrared region. In this paper, the progress made so far on the prototype development and the future plan will be presented.

Recently, the technology development efforts within SI have been focused on advanced optical and opto-mechanical systems to meet the increasing demand from Y. Choi et al. Funded by the Ministry of Commerce, Industry, and Energy of Korea in , SI has initiated the development of the prototype model of an advanced high-performance optical system, the TIS system as part of the national space research and development program.

The TIS system is designed to be versatile with a wide field-of-view, no obscuration, and no refractive element. Therefore, it can be used for various missions such as super-swath imaging, hyper-spectral imaging, infrared imaging, and aerial imaging.

In addition, its compactness and light weight are ideal for small satellites. The development of two prototype models is planned together with a field test for each model. The progress made so far on the 1st prototype development will be presented: optical design, analysis, and manufacturing; opto-mechanical design, analysis, and manufacturing; and demonstration of hyper-spectral imaging.

The optical design was simplified to use an on-axis spherical secondary mirror. The primary and tertiary mirrors are off-axis segmented aspheric mirrors. Its optical aperture is mm, its effective focal length is mm, and its full field-of-view is 5.

The key features of the TIS system are listed in Table 1. The spectral band range is from to nm and the spectral resolution is less than 10 nm for HS channels. The number of HS channels is more than The reference planes for the optical surfaces are implemented with invar inserts through the honeycomb panels.

The spectrometer of the TIS system is implemented with a linear variable filter LVF on a two-dimensional detector array instead of conventional dispersive elements such as prism and grating. Using aspheric surfaces for an optical system usually gives high performance but, it will increase the manufacturing cost and needs a complex alignment process.

To minimize the manufacturing cost and to make the alignment process simpler, the secondary mirror of the TIS system is an on-axis spherical mirror and the tertiary mirror has a small deviation from a spherical surface.

The design MTF at shorter wavelength is higher than that of nm. The tolerance analysis includes manufacturing, assembly, and alignment errors. The parameters used for the analysis includes the surface quality of mirrors. The analysis shows a wavefront error of 0. The secondary mirror M2 was aligned in two steps: coarse alignment and precision alignment. The coarse alignment of M2 was performed with respect to M1 using CMMs coordinate measurement machines and alignment telescopes.

CMMs were used to correct the M2 de-center and de-space and alignment telescopes to correct the M2 tilt. It is believed that this was caused by the fact that the Zernike calculation perpendicular to the exit pupil was not correct because the image plane is slanted against the optical axis.

For the precision alignment of M2, the sensitivity of M2 movement was measured. The optimum position and tilt was estimated based on the measured sensitivity.

The first excitation was measured at Hz from the interface flexure of the main structure. Others were measured at frequencies higher than Hz from translational and local motions of the structure and at frequencies higher than Hz for the motion of mirror assemblies.

Figure 15 shows the mages acquired in the channel 22 nm , 30 nm , 47 nm , and 62 nm.

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